POL 104 American Government Assignments (Spring 2017)

This is a course in the basic institutions and practices of American national government. After an introduction to some fundamental terms of politics and to the framing of the American constitution, we will study some basic political institutions of American politics that are necessary for our brand of liberal democracy to function: political parties, campaigns, and elections. We will then turn to the United States congress, presidency, bureaucracy, and judiciary.

There is at least one chapter in the textbook on each of these subjects. Typically, a weekly assignment will consist of one chapter of the text and an additional reading or two that I will supply or that you can access by a computer link.

Be sure to get your textbooks—hardback, e-text, or rental—at the campus bookstore or online from BVT Publishing (BVT Publishing) as soon as possible.

There will also be a weekly quiz on the material that has been assigned. The quizzes are intended to see if you have read the assigned material and are thus prepared for class discussion. The quizzes are made up of the types of questions that will appear on the exams: true-false, multiple choice, definitions, and short answer essays.

(Assignments are listed below the course outline and vocabulary lists.)

Here is the COURSE OUTLINE that I will follow throughout the course. Note: The outline is organized on the basis of the consecutive chapters of the textbook, but we will be taking several of the chapters out of turn. You may want to print the outline and copy notes directly onto your copy.

An introductory course on American government focuses a great deal on basic facts and concepts. The concepts that you should learn for this course are listed on the vocabulary sheets below. (The textbook contains a list of "Key Terms" at the end of each chapter, but I am holding you responsible for the terms on these vocabulary sheets, not the list of Key Terms in the book.) You might want to download these vocabulary lists as we go through the semester and make notes on them during class.

VOCABULARY LISTS FOR EACH CHAPTER

Introduction and Chapter 1, the Constitution

Chapter 2, Federalism

Chapter 3, Civil Liberties and Civil Rights

Chapter 4, Political Ideologies

Chapter 5, Public Opinion & Political Participation

Chapter 6, Politics and the Media

Chapter 7, Interest Groups and Political Parties

Chapter 8, Campaigns and Elections

Chapter 9, Congress

Chapter 10, The Presidency

Chapter 11, Bureaucracies

Chapter 12, Supreme Court

Chapter 13, Public Policy

Chapter 14, Public Policy and Economics

For the Class of March 14th:

The presidency is next. Please read (1) chapter 10 of the text and (2) the handouts about George Washington and Donald Trump. Let's make the quiz a True-False, Multiple Choice with a current events bonus question.

For the Class of February 28th:

The exams look pretty good so far. I should have them for you on Tuesday.

For Tuesday, please read (1) chapter 9 of the textbook on Congress and (2) Federalist #39 (linked here). The quiz will be a short answer essay quiz focusing on Federalist #39.

Some study questions to get you through the essay. Madison organizes the essay on the basis of two questions posed by opponents of the 1787 constitution.

  1. What question does Madison first address in the essay?
  2. How does Madison define "republican government"?
  3. How does Madison go about answering the question and what is his final answer?
  4. What is the next question he addresses?
  5. How does Madison define "federal government" and "national government" in Federalist 39?
  6. How does Madison go about answering the second question and what is his final answer?

I may also ask you these questions, so jot down short possible responses as you read the essay.

For the Class of February 21st:

Mid-Term Exam

MID-TERM EXAM. The mid-term will cover all of the materials that have been assigned since the last test and all of the class lecture materials. There will be questions on each of the chapters and readings, and I try to ask a proportional number of questions on each. There will be ten True-False questions (2 points each), ten Multiple Choice questions (2 points each), ten Definitions (2 points each), and four Short Answer Essay questions (three of which are worth 10 points, one of which is worth 20 points). Total: 110 points. Out of the ten True-False, ten Multiple Choice, and ten Definition questions there will generally be one or two True-False, one or two Multiple Choice, and one or two vocabulary terms to be defined from each chapter of the textbook that we studied. There will be one short answer essay and perhaps one or two True-False and Multiple Choice questions on each of the other readings that were assigned. Most of the exam will cover material that we have discussed in class and that was in the reading assignments, but a few questions are based solely on the readings and a few solely on the lectures. I ask questions that I really believe someone who has taken a college course on American Government should know: I do not ask obscure facts. (You might think some of the questions are obscure, but that is definitely not my intention.)

The short answer essay questions will be based on the following assigned readings: Federalist #10; "Voter Values," "Republican Operative Sentenced to Two Years," and "Charlie Cook on Analytical Survey Research." Of the four short answer essay questions, you select one of your answers to be worth twenty points; the other three will be worth ten points.

For the Class of February 14th:

Please read chapter 8 of the textbook and the following articles. They are very short. The quiz will be a short answer essay quiz—one paragraph of three or four sentences that addresses a couple of questions about the reading—on one of the articles. Be prepared!

  1. "Republican Operative Sentenced to Two Years,"by Matt Zapotosky and Matea Gold (What was Tyler Harber guilty of doing and why did his actions violate the Federal Election Campaign Act?).
  2. "Voter Values," by Thomas B. Edsall. When was this written? Who tended to vote Republican in that election? Who tended to vote Democratic? Did this same pattern hold in 2016? You might check the exit polls on my website. I've moved those links directly below this link.
  3. Charlie Cook on Analytical Survey Research. What is the problem with traditional polling or survey research? What are the alternatives? What went wrong for Hillary in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania?
  4. Sentiment for a Third Party Rasmussen. Two paragraphs on support for third party presidential candidates in 2015. The quiz won't be on this one, but there may be a test question on it.

Speaking of the test, the first mid-term is on February 21st!

President for a Day?

Here is the updated statistics sheet that I handed out in class: PolStats2017. Bring it along to class; we are not finished with it.

For the Class of February 7th:

Please read chapter 7 of the textbook and Federalist #10 for class. The quiz will be a definitions quiz, so review carefully the instructions below for writing definitions.

Here is a link to Federalist #10. To guide you through it, look for answers to the following questions:

  1. How does James Madison define "factions"?
  2. Why are factions a particular problem for democracies? All kinds of democracies?
  3. Why shouldn't we focus on eliminating the causes of faction?
  4. Can we have any control over the effects of factions in democracies?
  5. What two devices were built into the design of the United States Constitution to address the problem of factions?

Instructions for Definitions Quizzes

One complete sentence for each term is sufficient. A definition is more than a true statement about the term; a definition captures the essence or the nature of the term being defined, and this is done by describing the genus and differentia of the term. In defining a term, the genus of the definition is the type of thing that the term is—the general class or category to which the term belongs. For example, the genus of the term "executive privilege" is "a right or a power of the president"; that is, it is one of the many rights or powers possessed by a president of the United States. The differentia of a definition is the particular characteristic that distinguishes the term in question from the other members of the class or category, often on the basis of its unique purpose. The differentia that sets "executive privilege" apart from the other rights of the president is that it is his "right to withhold certain information from Congress and the courts." Thus, a good definition would be the following: “Executive privilege is the right of a president to withhold certain information from Congress and the courts.” This definition is a complete sentence; it is in genus and differentia form; and, it says more than something true about the term—it captures its essential nature. Never use the words "where" or "when" in a definition unless you are identifying a particular place or moment in time, and do not begin the definition by writing "Executive privilege is a term that . . . ." This makes it seem that the genus is "term."

On a quiz I will give you eight vocabulary terms: you pick five to define. On an exam, I will give you sixteen and you pick ten.

For the Class of January 31st:

I am assuming that you all have or will have textbooks this week to use for the rest of the semester. The assignment for Tuesday is chapter 4 and chapter 5 of the textbook. I will again give a true-false, multiple-choice quiz (we'll put off the definitions quiz until next week). We will be studying the elections process for the next few weeks. It should help you to understand some of the media discussion about the recent elections.

For the Class of January 24th:

The textbook is Introduction to American Government, 8th edition, by Charles C. Turner, D. Grier Stephenson, and others. BVT Publishing. ISBN 978-1-62751-627-3. If the bookstore does not have them or is out of them (they were ordered last month!), I suggest that you go directly to the publisher at the following website: www.bvtstudents.com and order this version directly from BVT. You can have the digital edition almost instantly. It will cost about $53.99.

Please read the following from the Turner-Stephenson textbook, Introduction to American Government, 8th ed.: Introduction; ch. 1, pp. 13-35; and ch. 2, pp. 43-58. There will be a true-false, multiple-choice quiz of about five questions at the beginning of class to test you on the assigned reading. The best way to prepare for the quiz is to read the assigned material carefully and to study the vocabulary on the lists linked here above. A bonus question on current news about American politics will also be included.

The material below is from previous semesters. I will be using some of it this semester, also. You may sift through it if you wish. or you may safely ignore it.

Grade Calculation Fall and Spring Semesters

Grade Calculation Fall and Spring Semesters

Grade Calculation Summer Sessions

Role of the Vice President (WSJ, January 21-22)

Some study Questions for the Marcus Prior, Tom Price, Paul Starr articles on news v. entertainment, the survival of the news media, and the effects of fewer news media:

Key terms from Prior's "News vs. Entertainment" (you can either determine their meaning from the article itself or from other sources):

  1. knowledge gap
  2. selective exposure
  3. chance encounters, indiscriminate viewing
  4. content preference, preference-based gaps
  5. TV as knowledge leveler
  6. socioeconomic-based gaps
  7. political advertising
Questions
  1. What is the "knowledge gap" that Prior discusses?
  2. Why is the knowledge gap a cause for concern in our country and in democracies generally?
  3. With more and more information about politics, government, and current events available throught the electronic media, why does the knowledge gap seem to be widening?
  4. Poorer people have less access to the more sophisticated and expensive technologies and media, such as cable television, computers, and smart phones. According to Prior, if all people had equal access to these media (if the "socioeconomic-based gap" were eliminated), is it likely that the public as a whole would be better informed about politics? Why? Why not?
  5. According to Prior, what is the likely effect of political knowledge on voter turnout?
  6. What does Prior suggest as one possible solution to fill the knowledge gap and level the knowledge of political information for the public?
  7. (Take a look at the discussion questions following Prior's article.)

Key terms from Tom Price's "Future of Journalism":

  1. death of newspapers
  2. 18th and 19th century newspapers, the party press era
  3. ripple effect
  4. the press corps
  5. Washington Bureaus
  6. "vetted" news reports
  7. citizen journalists
  8. niche sites
  9. general-circulation newspapers
Questions:
  1. What is one of the main worries of scholars about the decline of American newspapers?
  2. According to Price, are web-based (online) newspapers the answer?
  3. Why, according to Price, is the health of newspapers (the print media) more important than the health of web-based news, television news, and radio news (the electronic media)?
  4. Answer the three questions posed by Price in the article:
  5. How do Price's conclusions answer Marcus Prior's concerns: If a successful democracy needs a well-informed electorate, does Tom Price's article give us cause to believe that the electronic media will benefit to democracies?

Key terms from Paul Starr's "Goodbye to the Age of Newspapers":

  1. public goods, private goods
  2. news junkies
  3. the information revolution
  4. non-market collaborative networks
  5. original sources, parasitic sources
  6. philanthropic organizations
Questions
  1. What is Starr's main concern about online news?
  2. How does Starr's argument agree or disagree with the conclusions and concerns found in Tom Price's article on the death of newspapers?
  3. How does Starr's argument affect Marcus Prior's concerns about the knowledge gap?
  4. What does Starr suggest as solutions to his concern about online news?

"Republican Operative Sentenced to Two Years,"by Matt Zapotosky and Matea Gold (What was Tyler Harber guilty of doing and why did his actions violate the Federal Election Campaign Act?).

"Voter Values," by Thomas B. Edsall

To guide you through Federalist #10, look for answers to the following questions:

  1. How does James Madison define "factions"?
  2. Why are factions a particular problem for democracies? All kinds of democracies?
  3. Why shouldn't we focus on eliminating the causes of faction?
  4. Can we have any control over the effects of factions in democracies?
  5. What two devices were built into the design of the United States Constitution to address the problem of factions?

MID-TERM EXAM. The mid-term will cover all of the materials that have been assigned since the last test and all of the class lecture materials. There will be questions on each of the chapters and readings, and I try to ask a proportional number of questions on each. There will be ten True-False questions (2 points each), ten Multiple Choice questions (2 points each), ten Definitions (2 points each), and four Short Answer Essay questions (three of which are worth 10 points, one of which is worth 20 points). Total: 110 points. Out of the ten True-False, ten Multiple Choice, and ten Definition questions there will generally be one or two True-False, one or two Multiple Choice, and one or two vocabulary terms to be defined from each chapter of the textbook that we studied. There will be one short answer essay and perhaps one or two True-False and Multiple Choice questions on each of the other readings that were assigned. Most of the exam will cover material that we have discussed in class and that was in the reading assignments, but a few questions are based solely on the readings and a few solely on the lectures. I ask questions that I really believe someone who has taken a college course on American Government should know: I do not ask obscure facts. (You might think some of the questions are obscure, but that is definitely not my intention.)

The questions are based mostly on essential facts and on definitions that we have discussed in class. For the multiple choice questions, review those terms that appeared in series: e.g., the four types of congressional committees; the different concepts of democracy; the constitutional amendments that tinkered with the presidential election and succession; and so on. These types of terms make great multiple choice questions! A couple of the true-false and multiple-choice questions will be based directly on questions in the "Pop Quiz" section at the end of each chapter in the text, but most of the test questions will not.

Some short Supreme Court opinions: (1) Johnson, (2) Armour, (3) Prado v. California, (4) Bond v. United States, (5) Florida v. Jardines.

For the Johnson opinion, consider the following:

  1. Who won the case?
  2. What did the winner win?
  3. What was the issue or question that the court was asked to decide?
  4. What was the decision or judgment of the court?
  5. What Equal Protection rule or test or standard did the Court say was the appropriate rule to apply here?
  6. Did the court decide that the California Prisons policy was unconstitutional? that it was constitutional?
For the Armour opinion, consider the following:
  1. Who won the case?
  2. What did the winner win?
  3. What was the issue or question that the court was asked to decide?
  4. What was the decision or judgment of the court?
  5. What Equal Protection rule or test or standard did the Court say was the appropriate rule to apply here?

This is one of those "supervisory" opinions that the Supreme Court renders from time to time. Read the opinion carefully.

As you read the Prado case, try to determine the following:

  1. What kind of case is it—civil or criminal?
  2. Who finally won the case?
  3. What was the issue before the Supreme Court?
  4. Which Constitutional Amendment was central to the Court's opinion?
  5. What, exactly, did the winner of the case "win" here?
  6. Is there a majority opinion in this case—an "opinion of the court"? Who wrote it?
  7. Are there any concurring or dissenting opinions? Who wrote them?
  8. Why did the concurrers concur? Why did the dissenters dissent?

Jardines v. Florida. If you read or download the Jardines case from the Supreme Court website, you will notice that it comes in four parts:

  1. the two-page syllabus or headnote at the beginning of the materials;
  2. the ten-page opinion by Justice Scalia;
  3. the five-page concurrence of Justice Kagan; and,
  4. the twelve-page dissent by Justice Alito

Scalia's opinion is organized in typical fashion: (1) an initial statement of the issue in the case, (2) a summary of the facts and the prior judicial actions in the case in Part I, (3) an answer to the question or issue with supporting rationale in the different sections of Part II, (4) a pointed response to, and rejection of, some of the arguments of the losing party in Part III, and (5) a short restatement of the holding and decision in the case.

The headnote is helpful in getting an overall understanding of the case, but I would like you to read Justice Scalia's opinion in full and as much of Kagan's and Alito's opinions as necessary to answer the following questions:

  1. What is the precise question that Scalia says the Court is addressing?
  2. Where did this case come from?
  3. Which court(s) decided the question below? How did those courts rule (what did they say?)?
  4. Who appealed (or petitioned the Supreme Court to review) the lower court decision(s)?
  5. What is the Court's answer to the question presented (this is the "holding")?
  6. What reasons does the Court give to support its answer (holding)?
  7. Who won the case before the Supreme Court? This is the decision or judgment of the Court.
  8. Why does Kagan write a separate opinion? Does she disagree with Scalia about the decision or the rationale for the decision that Scalia sets forth?
  9. Is Scalia's opinion the "opinion of the Court" if Kagan, Sotomayor, and Ginsburg write separately?
  10. Why does Alito dissent? What is his main disagreement with Scalia's opinion? with Kagan's opinion?

Federalist #51; and (3) the opinion(s), which I think you will enjoy. The quiz will be a definitions quiz on terms in ch. 3 with a bonus question on Federalist #51 and a bonus question on Prado v. California.

A few study questions to lead you through Federalist 51:

  1. What is the initial question that Madison addresses?
  2. According to Madison, why should the basic power of government be separated?
  3. Does he insist on a strict separation and independence of the fundamental powers of government?
  4. How does he answer his original question?
  5. What is Madison's view of human nature, or at least of the nature of most politicians?
  6. How does his view of the nature of politicians inform his suggested design of republican government?

Please read chapter 11 (the bureaucracy); chapter 2, pp. 58-67; and these articles on bureaucratic rule-making:

The magic rabbit disaster plan, and 2015 EPA Proposed Regs on Ethanol.

Disaster Plan Rule Status

The following are good sources of political news:
  1. RealClearPolitics
  2. Sabato's Crystal Ball
  3. The Cook Political Report
  4. Gallup Polls
  5. Rasmussen Political Polling Reports

Story on jockeying for chairmanship of the House Ways and Means Committee

Federalist #39.

Madison organizes the essay on the basis of two questions posed by opponents of the 1787 constitution.

  1. What question does Madison first address in the essay?
  2. How does Madison define "republican government"?
  3. How does Madison go about answering the question and what is his final answer?
  4. What is the next question he addresses?
  5. How does Madison define "federal government" and "national government" in Federalist 39?
  6. How does Madison go about answering the second question and what is his final answer?

I may also ask you these questions, so jot down short possible responses as you read the essay.

Sentiment for a Third Party Rasmussen

Polstats 2017

Gallup Party Affiliation

Virginia GOP Has Choice of State Presidential Primary or State Convention.

"Obama's ex-aides profit from experience".

An alternative to the legislative veto: The Congressional Review Act

Jonathan Turley on the "rise of the fourth branch of government."

Gun Law

F.E.C. on the Presidential Election Campaign Fund, as of April 9, 2014

Campaign Finance Cases:

  1. Buckley v. Valeo, 1976
  2. Citizens United v. F.E.C. (2010)
  3. Speechnow.org v. F.E.C. (C.A.D.C. 2010)
  4. McCutcheon v. F.E.C. (2014)

GOP Coalition, Dan Balz

The Political Center, Dan Balz

Article by Mike Wise of the Washington Post, an interesting follow-up to the article by Jonathan Rauch on prejudice. Not assigning it. Just saying.

On the power of interest groups to influence political policy: "Vegas Union Blocks UFC From NY".

I think some of you will be interested in these two articles: United States Debt Held by China and Bulk of America's debt held not by China but by U.S. itself.

2013 Budget Charts from zerohedge.com

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/02/13/us/politics/2013-budget-proposal-graphic.html

http://media.cq.com/media/2012/fiscal2013_budget/

Voter Values

If you are interested in following political (and other) polls, the following are two good sources:

Articles on the budget situation:

Monster Interest on the National Debt (February 17, 2011);

Government Shutdown article (April 4, 2011) The link at the end of this article to "Full Coverage of Government Shutdown" contains all the information you would ever want to have about what a shutdown entails.

Budget Battle Came Down to Three Men and their Weaknesses.

Though not assigned, you may be interested in the Status of FY 2011 Appropriations Bills.

FY 2015 Budget Graphic

To guide you through Federalist #10, look for answers to the following questions:

  1. How does James Madison define "factions"?
  2. Why are factions a particular problem for democracies? All kinds of democracies?
  3. Why shouldn't we focus on eliminating the causes of faction?
  4. Can we have any control over the effects of factions in democracies?
  5. What two devices were built into the design of the United States Constitution to address the problem of factions?

For Federalist #39. Consider the following as you read the essay:

Madison organizes the essay on the basis of two questions posed by opponents of the 1787 constitution.

  1. What question does Madison first address in the essay?
  2. How does Madison define "republican government"?
  3. How does Madison go about answering the question and what is his final answer?
  4. What is the next question he addresses?
  5. How does Madison define "federal government" and "national government" in Federalist 39?
  6. How does Madison go about answering the second question and what is his final answer?

I may also ask you these questions, so jot down short possible responses as you read the essay.

A few study questions to lead you through Federalist 51 :

  1. What is the initial question that Madison addresses?
  2. According to Madison, why should the basic power of government be separated?
  3. Does he insist on a strict separation and independence of the fundamental powers of government?
  4. How does he answer his original question?
  5. What is Madison's view of human nature, or at least of the nature of most politicians?
  6. How does his view of the nature of politicians inform his suggested design of republican government?
  7. In the final two paragraphs of the essay, Madison provides two additional reasons that the American system prevents the concentration of political power. What is the first argument Madison makes?
  8. .
  9. What is Madison's second argument? (The second argument recaps the case Madison made in Federalist #10 for an "extended" republic.)

"Congress's Afterthought, Wall Street's Trillion Dollars," by Appelbaum and Irwin.

. Compare the points made in these two older articles (2000 and 2002) with the results reflected in the exit polls of the 2004 and 2008 elections. Are the conclusions in the two articles still true (if they ever were)?

Study Questions for the Marcus Prior, Tom Price, Paul Starr articles on news v. entertainment, the survival of the news media, and the effects of fewer news media.

Key terms from Prior's "News vs. Entertainment" (you can either determine their meaning from the article itself or from other sources):

  1. knowledge gap
  2. selective exposure
  3. chance encounters, indiscriminate viewing
  4. content preference, preference-based gaps
  5. TV as knowledge leveler
  6. socioeconomic-based gaps
  7. political advertising
Questions
  1. What is the "knowledge gap" that Prior discusses?
  2. Why is the knowledge gap a cause for concern in our country and in democracies generally?
  3. With more and more information about politics, government, and current events available throught the electronic media, why does the knowledge gap seem to be widening?
  4. Poorer people have less access to the more sophisticated and expensive technologies and media, such as cable television, computers, and smart phones. According to Prior, if all people had equal access to these media (if the "socioeconomic-based gap" were eliminated), is it likely that the public as a whole would be better informed about politics? Why? Why not?
  5. According to Prior, what is the likely effect of political knowledge on voter turnout?
  6. What does Prior suggest as one possible solution to fill the knowledge gap and level the knowledge of political information for the public?
  7. (Take a look at the discussion questions following Prior's article.)

Key terms from Tom Price's "Future of Journalism":

  1. death of newspapers
  2. 18th and 19th century newspapers, the party press era
  3. ripple effect
  4. the press corps
  5. Washington Bureaus
  6. "vetted" news reports
  7. citizen journalists
  8. niche sites
  9. general-circulation newspapers
Questions:
  1. What is one of the main worries of scholars about the decline of American newspapers?
  2. According to Price, are web-based (online) newspapers the answer?
  3. Why, according to Price, is the health of newspapers (the print media) more important than the health of web-based news, television news, and radio news (the electronic media)?
  4. Answer the three questions posed by Price in the article:
  5. How do Price's conclusions answer Marcus Prior's concerns: If a successful democracy needs a well-informed electorate, does Tom Price's article give us cause to believe that the electronic media will benefit to democracies?

Key terms from Paul Starr's "Goodbye to the Age of Newspapers":

  1. public goods, private goods
  2. news junkies
  3. the information revolution
  4. non-market collaborative networks
  5. original sources, parasitic sources
  6. philanthropic organizations
Questions
  1. What is Starr's main concern about online news?
  2. How does Starr's argument agree or disagree with the conclusions and concerns found in Tom Price's article on the death of newspapers?
  3. How does Starr's argument affect Marcus Prior's concerns about the knowledge gap?
  4. What does Starr suggest as solutions to his concern about online news?

Miscellaneous Materials on Campaigns and Elections

Virginia GOP Has Choice of State Presidential Primary or State Convention

Lobbyists as Chief Fund-Raisers

Legislation Responding to Citizens United v. FEC Decision

Gallup Polls

"Libertarians: Don't Call Us Tea Party-ers."

Politics of money: Financially insecure tilt Democratic, but less likely to vote

Miscellaneous Materials on Congress

Bills Left in Limbo

Speakers of the House of Representatives

Congressional Elections, 1900 to 2012

John Dean on "Going Nuclear" and the Senate Filibuster

Example of Gerrymandering: North Carolina Congressional District 12

Robert Kaiser on Congress ("Three Reasons Congress is Broken").

Here's an article on Congressional Staffers that might be of interest to you.

Miscellaneous Materials on Lobbying

Not all big lobbying efforts succeed.

Lobbyists Focus on States and Municipalities

The Revolving Door

Competing Lobbyists/Interest Groups

Miscellaneous Materials on the Bureaucracy

Increase of Government Employees since 1942

"Obama's ex-aides profit from experience".

Questioning the Cattle Call: The Congressional Review Act

Jonathan Turley on the "rise of the fourth branch of government."

Bureaucratic Regulation at its Best! Magic Rebbit Regulation

2015 EPA Proposed Regs on Ethanol.

Gun Law

North Carolina's 12th Congressional District

Miscellaneous materials on the 2011 Budget Crisis:

Obama at Risk of Losing Liberal Support

Obama's New Approach: Entitlements on the Table

Budget Battle Came Down to Three Men and their Weaknesses

Shutdown Looks More Likely

Government Shutdown article (April 4, 2011)

Budget Impasse article

"Without a budget, Living in limbo"

House Approves 6th Supplemental March 15th