Italian Fascism – Timeline


1919 – Mussolini forms ‘combat groups’ (‘fascio di Combattimento’).


1919 – Fascists win 2% of the vote in General Election.


1921 – Mussolini forms the National Fascist Party.


1921 – General Election – 35 seats for Fascists.


August 1922 – General Strike in Italy - Fascists help break a general strike.


Oct. 1922 – Mussolini demands to be made Prime Minister. March on Rome – King caves in to Mussolini’s demands.


1923 – Mussolini rescues the Catholic Bank of Rome from financial difficulties.


1923 – Mussolini occupies Corfu. Withdraws when Greece pay ‘compensation’.


Nov. 1923 – Acerbo Law - the party that gained the greatest number of votes in the election would get two-thirds of the seats.


Jan. 1924 – Mussolini occupies Fiume.


April 1924 – Fascists win 65% vote in general election – use violence and intimidation.


April 1924 – Fascists murder Socialist Party leader, Matteotti. Opposition MP’s resign from Parliament in protest (the Aventine Secession). Mistake and allows Mussolini consolidate his position.


Jan. 1925 – Press censorship introduced. All independent newspapers closed.


1925 – Mussolini has a Catholic marriage and baptises his children.


1925 – Pope Pius XI withdraws support from the Catholic Popular Party.


1925 – Battle for Grain (1925-1929). Battle for the Lira. Battle for Land. Battle for babies.


Nov. 1926 – All political parties (except fascists) banned. OVRA established.


1929 – Lateran Treaty between the fascists and the Vatican.





1934 – Mussolini opposes unification of Austria and Germany.


1935 – Italy joins ‘Stresa Front’ with Britain and France to oppose German rearmament and expansion.


1935 – Mussolini invades Abyssinia.


Nov. 1936 – ‘Rome-Berlin Axis. First treaty with Germany signed by Count Ciano (Foreign Minister and Mussolini’s cousin).


1937 – Italy, Germany and Japan sign the ‘Anti-Comintern Pact’. Unites Fascist countries and Japan in their aim to crush the USSR.


March 1939 – Italy issues ultimatum to Albania to accept takeover – tries to bribe King Zog.


April 1939 – Italy invades Albania. Albania defeated – King Zog deposed and replaced as king by King Emmanuel of Italy.


May 1939 –Von Ribbentrop and Ciano sign ‘Pact of Friendship and Alliance’ – known as ‘Pact of Steel’.


Sept. 1939 – Mussolini declares Italy neutral when Germany invade Poland.


1940 - Believing a Germany victory inevitable, Mussolini enters war. Italian invasion of Egypt (from Libya) crushed by British forces.


Oct. 1940 – Italy invades Greece from Albania – attack defeated. Germany intervenes to prevent Italian defeat.


1941 – Italy loses Abyssinia.


1943 – Mussolini deposed but re-installed by Germans in Northern Italy.


1945 – Executed.