The Pre-Socratics


The Ionians


Thales of Miletus (Ionia) (625-545 B.C.?)


"They think that Homer also, like Thales, made water principle and birth of all things through learning from the Egyptians." (70:Plutarch)


"In the sixth year of the war, which they [the Medes and the Lydians] had carried on with equal fortunes, an engagement took place in which it turned out that when the battle was in progress the day suddenly became night. This alteration of the day Thales the Milesian foretold to the Ionians, setting as its limit this year in which the change actually occurred." (76:Herodotus)


"Some think he was the first to study the heavenly bodies and to foretell eclipses of the sun and solstices, as Eudemus says in his history of astronomy. . . ." (77:Diogenes Laertius)


"He is said to have left nothing in tfie form of writings except the so-called Nautical Starguide." (83:Simplicius)



Anaximander of Miletus (610-545 B.C.?)


"Anaximander, son of Praxiades, of Miletus, philosopher: he said that the principle (arche) and element (stoicheion) is the Indefinite (apeiron), not distinguishing air or water or anything else ... he was the first to discover a gnomon [a vertical rod or any set-square whose shadow indicates the sun's direction and height], and he set one up on the sundials in Sparta... to mark solstices and equinoxes; and he also constructed hour-indicators. He first drew an outline of earth and sea, but he also constructed a celestial globe." (96:Diogenes Laertius)


"Of those who say that it is one, moving, and infinite, Anaximander ... said that the principle (arche) and element (stoicheion) of all existing things was the apeiron [indefinite or infinite] being the first to introduce this name for the material principle. He says that it is neither water nor any of the so-called elements, but some other apeiron nature, from which come into being all the heavens and the worlds in them. And the source for coming-to-be for existing things is that into which destruction, too, happens `according to necessity; for they pay penalty and retribution to each other for their injustice according to the assessment of time', as he describes it in these rather poetical terms. (103:Theophrastus's account according to Simplicius) alternatively, according to Hyppolytus:


"Now Anaximander ... said that the principle and element of existing things was the apeiron, being the first to use this name for the material principle. (In addition to this he said that motion was eternal, in which it results that the heavens come into being.) ... he said that the material principle of existing things was some nature coming under the heading of the apeiron, from which comes into being the heavens and the world in them. This nature is eternal and unageing, and it also surrounds all the worlds. He talks of Time as though coming-to-be and existence and destruction were limited. (103:Hyppolytus)


"It is clear that [Anaximander], seeing the changing of the four elements [earth, air, fire, water] into each other, thought it right to make none of these the substratum, but something else beside these; and he produces coming-to-be not through the alteration of the element, but by the separation off of the opposites through the eternal motion." (121:Simplicius)


Anaximenes of Miletus (585-500 B.C.?)


"Anaximenes, son of Eurystratus, of Miletus, a companion of Anaximander, also says that the underlying nature is one and infinite like him, but not undefined as Anaximander says, but definite, for he identifies it as air; and it differs in its substantial nature by rarity and density. Being made finer it becomes fire, being made thicker it becomes wind, then cloud, then (when thickened still more) water, then earth, then stones; and the rest come into being from these. He, too, makes motion eternal, and says that change, also, comes about through it." (143:Theophrastus)


"Anaximenes ... said that infinite air was the principle from which the things that are becoming, and that are and that shall be, and gods and things divine, all come into being, and the rest from its products. The form of air is of this kind: whenever it is most equable it is invisible to sight, but is revealed by the cold and the hot and the damp and by movement. It is always in motion: for things that change do not change unless there be movement. Through becoming denser or finer, it has different appearances; for when it is dissolved into what is finer it becomes fire, while winds, again, are air that is becoming condensed, and cloud is produced from air by felting. When it is condensed still more, water is produced; with a further degree of condensation water is produced; with a further degree of condensation earth is produced, and when condensed as far as possible, stones. The result is that the most influential components of generation are opposites, hot and cold. (144:Hippolytus)


"[H]e says that when the air felts, there first of all comes into being the earth, quite flat therefore it accordingly rides on the air; and sun and moon and the remaining heavenly bodies have their source of generation from earth. At least he declares the sun to be earth, but that through the rapid moption it obtains heat in great sufficiency." (151:Ps.-Plutarch)


"Anaximenes says that the stars are implanted like nails in a crystalline; but some say they are fiery leaves like paintings." (157:Aetius)


"Anaximenes says that sun is flat like a leaf." (158:Aetius)


"As our soul, [Anaximenes] says, being air holds us together and controls us, so does wind (or breath) and air enclose the whole world." (163:Aetius)



Xenophanes of Colophon (and Sicily) (570-475 B.C.?)


"Our Eleatic tribe, beginning from Xenophanes and even before, explains in its myths that what we call all things are actually one." (166:Plato)


"For Parmenides seems to fasten on that which is one in definition, Melissus on that which is one in material; therefore the former says that it is limited, the latter that it is unlimited. But Xenophanes, the first of these to postulate a unity (for Parmenides is said to have been his pupil), made nothing clear ...." (167:Aristotle)


"Homer and Hesiod have attributed to the gods everything that is a shame and reproach among men, stealing and committing adultery and deceiving each other." (169:Sextus-Fr. 11)


"But mortals consider that the gods are born, and that they have clothes and speech and bodies like their own." (170:Clement-Fr. 14)


"The Ethiopians say that their gods are snub-nosed and black, the Thracians that theirs have light blue eyes and red hair." (171:Clement-Fr. 16)


"But if cattle and horses or lions had hands, or were able to draw with their hands and do the works that men can do, horses would draw the forms of the gods like horses, and cattle like cattle, and they would make their bodies such as each had themselves." (172:Clement-Fr. 15)


"One god, greatest among gods and men, in no way similar to mortals either in body or in thought." (173:Clement-Fr. 23)


"[A]lways He remains in the same place, moving not at all; nor is it fitting for Him to go to different places at different times, but without toil He shakes all things by the thought of His mind." (174:Simplicius-Fr. 26+25)


"All of Him sees, all thinks and all hears." (175:Sextus-Fr. 24)


"The sun comes into being from little pieces of fire that are collected, and the earth is infinite and enclosed neither by air or by the heaven. There are innumerable suns and moons, and all things are made of earth." (178:Hippolytus)


"He says that the sun and the stars come from clouds." (179:Ps.Plutarch)


" Xenophanes says that the sun is made from ignited clouds. Theophrastus in the Physical Philosophers wrote that it is made of little pieces of fire collected together from the moist exhalation, and themselves collecting together the sun." (180:Aetius)



Herakleitos of Ephesus (540-480 B.C.?)


"[Herakleitos] grew up to be exceptionally haughty and supercilious, as is clear also from his book, in which he says: `Learning of many things does not teach intelligence; if so it would have taught Hesiod and Pythagoras, and again Xenophanes and Hekataeus.' . . . Finally he became a misanthrope, withdrew from the world, and lived in the mountains feeding on grasses and plants." (193: Diogenes Laertius)


"Of the Logos which is as I describe it men always prove to be uncomprehending, both before they have heard it and when once they have heard it. For although all things happen according to this Logos men are like people of no experience, even when they experience such words and deeds as I explain, when I distinguish each thing according to its constitution and declare how it is; but the rest of men fail to notice what they do after they wake up just as they forget what they do when asleep." (197:Sextus)


"Therefore it is necessary to follow the common; but although the Logos is common the many live as though they had a private understanding," (198:Sextus-Fr. 2)


“If you do not hope you will not find the unhoped-for, since it is hard to be found and the way is all but impassable.” (Fr.18, Voegelin, NSP, 68-9)


“Through lack of faith (apistie) the divine (?) escapes being known.” (Fr. 86, Voegelin, NSP, 69)


"Listening not to me but to the Logos it is wise to agree that all things are one." (199:Hippolytus-Fr. 50)


“The invisible harmony is better (or “greater” or “more powerful” than the visible.” (210:Hippolytus-Fr. 54 )


"The things of which there is hearing and seeing and perception, these do I prefer." (200:Hippolytus-Fr. 55)


"Evil witnesses are eyes and ears for men, if they have souls (psychas) that do not understand their language." (201:Sextus-Fr. 107)


"Sea is the most pure and most polluted water; for fishes it is drinkable and salutary, but for men it is undrinkable and deleterious." (202:Hippolytus-Fr. 61)


"The way up and down is one and the same." (203:Hippolytus-Fr. 60)


"Disease makes health pleasant and good, hunger satiety, weariness rest." (204:Stobaeus-Fr. 111)


"And as the same thing there exists in us living and dead and the waking and the sleeping and the young and the old: for these things having changed round are those, and those having changed round are these." (205:Plutarch-Fr. 88)


"God is day night, winter summer, war peace, satiety hunger (all the opposites, this is the meaning); he undergoes alteration in the way that fire, when it is mixed with spices, is named according to the scent of each of them." (207:Hippolytus-Fr. 67).


"Human disposition does not have true judgment, but divine disposition does." (208:Origen-Fr. 78)


"To god all things are beautiful and good and just, but men have supposed some things to be unjust, others just." (209:Porphyrius-Fr. 102)


"An unapparent connection is stronger than an apparent one." (210:Hippolytus-Fr. 54)


"The real constitution of things is accustomed to hiding itself." (211:Themistius-Fr. 123)


"War is the father of all and king of all, and some he shows as gods, others as men; some he makes slaves, others free." (215:Hippolytus-Fr. 53)


"This world order (the same of all) did none of the gods or men make, but it always was and is and shall be; an everlasting fire, kindling in measures and going out in measures." (220:Clement-Fr. 30)


"All things are an equal exchange for fire and fire for all things, as goods are for gold and gold for goods." (222:Plutarch-Fr. 90)


"Sun will not overstep his measures; otherwise the Erinyes, ministers of Justice, will find him out." (229:Plutarch-Fr. 94)


"The wise [Wisdom] is one thing, to be acquainted with true judgment, how all things are steered through all." (230:Diogenes Laertius-Fr. 41)


"One thing, the only truly wise, does and does consent to be called by the name of Zeus." (231:Clement-Fr. 32)


"A dry soul is wisest and best." (233:Stobaeus-Fr. 118)


"You would not find out the boundaries of soul, even by traveling along every path; so deep a measure does it have." (235:Diogenes Laertius-Fr. 45)


"I searched out [into] myself." (249:Plutarch-Fr. 101)


"Immortal mortals, mortal immortals, living their death and dying their life." (Hippolytus: 242 Fr. 62) "Man's character is his daimon." (250:Stobaeus-Fr. 119)



The Italians


Pythagoras of Samos (575-500 B.C.?)


"He emigrated to Croton in Italy and there, by legislating for the Italians, won renown together with his pupils. They numbered nearly 300, and they administered the affairs of state so well that the constitution was virtually an aristocracy." (257:Diogenes Laertius)


"Empedocles too bears witness to this, writing of [Pythagoras]: 'And there was among them a man of rare knowledge, most skilled in all manner of wise works, a man who had won the utmost wealth of wisdom; for whensoever he strained with all his mind, he easily saw everything of all the things that are, in ten, yea, twenty lifetimes of men.'" (263:Porphyrius)


"Pythagoras wrote nothing, nor did Socrates nor Arcesilaus nor Carneades." (267:Plutarch)


"What he said to his associates, nobody can say for certain; for silence with them was of no ordinary kind." (265:Porphyrius)


"Nonetheless the following became universally known: first that [Pythagoras] maintains that the soul is immortal; next, that it changes into other kinds of living things; also that events recur in certain cycles, and that nothing is ever absolutely new; and finally, that all living things should be regarded as akin. Pythagoras seems to have been the first to bring these beliefs into Greece." (271:Porphyrius)


"So Pythagoras turned geometrical philosophy into a form of liberal education by seeking its first principles in a higher realm of reality . . . ." (277:Proclus)


"Ten is the very nature of number. All Greeks and all barbarians alike count up to ten, and having reached ten revert again to the unit. And again, Pythagoras maintains, the power of the number ten lies in the number four, the tetrad. This is the reason: if one starts at the unit and adds the successive numbers up to four, one will make up the number ten; and if one exceeds the tetrad, one will exceed ten too. If, that is, one takes the unit, adds two, then three and then four, one will make up the number ten. So that number by the unit resides in the number ten, but potentially in the number four. And so the Pythagoreans used to invoke the tetrad as their utmost binding oath: 'Nay, by him that gave to our generation the tetractys, which contains the fount and root of eternal nature.'" (281:Proclus)


Alcmaeon of Croton (late 6th-early 5th)


“Of those who think perception is of unlike to unlike Alcmaeon first defined the difference between man and animals. For man, he says, differs from other animals in that ‘he only understands [phronein], while the rest perceive [aisthanetai] but do not understand,’ thought and perception being different, not, as Empedocles maintains, the same. Thereafter he discusses each of the senses severally . . . . Collectively he maintains that the senses are somehow connected with the brain; and so they are incapacitated when it moves or changes its position; for it stops the passages through which sensations come.” (284:Theophrastus)


Alcmaeon maintains that the bond of health is the ‘equal balance’ of the powers, moist and dry, cold and hot, bitter and sweet, and the rest, while the ‘supremacy of one of them is the cause of disease . . . . Health on the other hand is the proportionate admixture of the qualities.” (286:Aetius)


Alcmaeon also seems to have held much  the same view about the soul as these others; for he says that it is immporal owing to its similarity to the immortal; and it has this quality because it is always in motion; for everything divine is in continual motion—the sun, the moon, the stars, and the whole heavens.” (287:Aristotle)   


Parmenides of Elea (515/510-? B.C.?)


"Parmenides set his own state in order with such admirable laws that the government yearly swears its citizens to abide by the laws of Parmenides." (341:Plutarch)


"The steeds that carry me took me as far as my heart could desire, when once they had brought me and set me on the renowned way of the goddess, who leads the man who knows through every town. On that way I was conveyed; for on it did the wise steeds convey me, drawing my chariot, and maidens led the way. And the axle blazing in the socket—for it was urged round by well-turned wheels at each end—was making the holes in the naves sing, while the daughters of the Sun, hastening to convey me into the light, threw back the veils from off their faces and left the abode of night. There are the gates of the ways of Night and Day, fitted above with a lintel and below with a threshold of stone. They themselves, high in the air, are closed by mighty doors, and avenging Justice controls the double bolts. Her did the maidens entreat with gentle words and cunningly persuade to unfasten without demur the bolted bar from the gates. Then, when the doors were thrown back, they disclosed a wide opening, when their brazen posts fitted with rivets and nails swung in turn on their hinges. Straight through them, on the broad way, did the maidens guide the horses and car. And the goddess greeted me kindly, and took my right hand in hers, and spake to me these words: 'Welcome, o youth, that comest to my abode on the car that bears thee, tended by immortal charioteers. It is no ill chance, but right and justice, that has sent thee forth to travel on this way. Far indeed does it lie from the beaten track of men. Meet it is that thou shouldst learn all things, as well the unshaken heart of well-rounded truth, as the opinions of mortals in which is no true belief at all. Yet nonetheless shalt thou learn these things also—how the things that seem, as they all pass through everything, must gain the semblance of being.'" (342:Sextus-Fr. 1; also in #3 below)


"Come now, and I will tell thee—and do thou hearken and carry my word away—the only ways of enquiry that can be thought of: the one way, that it is and cannot not-be, is the path of Persuasion, for it attends upon Truth; the other, that it is-not and needs must not-be, that I tell thee is a path altogether unthinkable. For thou couldst not know that which is-not (that is impossible) nor utter it; for the same thing can be thought as can be." (344:Proclus-Fr.2)


"That which can be spoken and thought needs must be; for it is possible for it, but not for nothing, to be; that is what I bid thee ponder. This is the first way of enquiry from which I hold thee back, and then from that way also on which mortals wander knowing nothing, two-headed; for helplessness guides the wandering thought in their breasts; they are carried along, deaf and blind at once, altogether dazed—hordes devoid of judgment, who are persuaded that to be and to be-not are the same, yet not the same, and for whom the path of all things is backward-turning." (345:Simplicius-Fr.6)


"For never shall this be proved, that things that are not are; but do thou hold back thy thought from this way of enquiry, nor let custom, born of much experience, force thee to let wander along this road thy aimless eye, thy echoing ear or thy tongue; but do thou judge by reason the strife encompassed proof that I have spoken." (346:Plato-Fr.7)


"One way only is left to be spoken of, that it is; and on this way are full many signs that what is is uncreated and imperishable, for it is entire, immovable and without end. It was not in the past, nor shall it be, since it is now, all at once, one, continuous; for what creation wilt thou seek for it? How and whence did it grow? Nor shall I allow thee to say or to think, 'from that which is not'; for it is not to be said or thought that it is not. And what need would have driven it on to grow, starting from nothing, at a later time rather than an earlier? Thus it must completely be or be not. Nor will the force of true belief allow that, beside what is, there could also arise anything from what is not; wherefore Justice looseth not her fetters to allow it to come into being or perish, but holdeth it fast; the decision on these matters rests here: it is or it is not. But it has surely been decided, as it must be, to leave alone the one way as unthinkable and nameless (for it is no true way), and that the other is real and true. How could what is thereafter perish? And how could it come into being? For if it came into being, it is not, nor if it is going to be in the future. So coming into beling is extinguished and perishing unimaginable." (347:Simplicius-Fr.8)


Zeno of Elea (490/485-???)


Fr. 3: "If there is a plurality, things must be just as many as there are, no more and no less. And if they are just as many as they are, they must be limited. If there is a plurality, the things that are are infinite [unlimited]; for there will always be other things between the things that are, and yet others between those others. And so the things that are are infinite." (Simplicius: 366)


"Zeno's arguments about motion, which cause such trouble to those who try to solve the problems that they present, are four in number." (Aristotle 239b9: 369)


"The first asserts the non-existence of motion on the ground that that which is in locomotion must arrive at the half-way stage before it arrives at the goal . . . ." (Aristotle 239b11: 370)


"The second is the so-called Achilles, and it amounts to this, that in a race the quickest runner can never overtake the slowest, since the pursuer must first reach the point whence the pursued started, so that the slower must always hold a lead." (Aristotle 239b14: 373)


"Zeno's problem—that 'if Place is something, it must be in something—is not difficult to solve." (Aristotle210b22: 377)


Melissus of Samos (fl. 444-441 B.C.)


Pupil of Parmenides; wrote book About nature or reality.


“Since then it did not come into being [ούκ έγένετο], it is now, always was and always will be, without either beginning or end, but infinite [άπειρόν]. For if it had come into being, it would have a beginning (for it would at some time have come into being) and an end (for it would at some time have stopped coming into being); but since it neither began nor ended, it always was and always shall be, without either beginning or end; for it is not possible for anything to exist for ever unless it all exists.” (381: Simplicius, Fr. 2)


“But just as it exists for ever, so too it must for ever be infinite in magnitude.” (382: Simp., Fr. 3)


“Nothing that has a beginning and an end is either eternal or infinite.” (383: Simp., Fr. 4)


“If it were not one, it would be bounded by something else.” (384: simp., Fr. 5)


“For if it were (infinite), it would be one; for if it were two, the two could not be infinite, but would be limited by one another.” (385: Simp., Fr. 6)


“For he made it clear that he means that what exists [το όν] is incorporeal [άσώματον] when he wrote: ‘If it is, it must be one; and being one, it must have no body. If it were to have bulk, it would have parts and be no longer one.’” (391: Simp., Fr. 9)


“This argument, then, is the greates proof that it is one alone; but the following are proofs of it also. If there were a plurality [πολλά], things would have to be of the same kind as I say that the one is. For if there is earth and water, and air and fire, and iron and gold, and if one thing is living and another dead, and if things are black and while and all that men say they really are—if that is so, and if we see and hear aright, each one of these must be such as we first decided, and they cannot be changed or altered, but each must be always just as it is. But, as it is, we say that we see and hear and understand aright, and yet we believe that what is warm becomes cold, and what is cold war; that what is hard turns soft, and what is soft hard; that what is living dies, and that things are born from what lives not, and that all those things are changed, and that what they were and what they are now are in no way alike. . . . Now these things do not agree with one another. We said that there were many things that were eternal and had forms and strength of their own, and yet we fancy that they all suffer alteration, and that they change from what we see each time. It is clear, then, that we did not see aright after all, nor are we right in believing that all these things are many. They would not change if they were real [άληθη], but each thing would be just what we believed it to be; for nothing is stronger than true reality. But if it has changed, what is has passed away and what is not has come into being. So then, if there were a plurality, things would have to be of just the same nature as the one [το εν]. (After Burnet” (392: Simp., Fr. 8)


The Post-Parmenideans


Empedocles of Acragas (492-432 B.C.)


"Fools—for they have no far-reaching thoughts—who fancy that that which formerly was not can come into being or that anything can perish and be utterly destroyed. For coming into being from that which in no way is is inconceivable, and it is impossible and uneard-of that that which is should be destroyed. For it will ever be there wherever one may keep pushing it." (414:Plutarch-Fr.12)


"And no part of the whole is either empty or over-full" (416:Aristotle-Fr.14)


"But come, consider with all they powers how each thing is manifest, neither holding sight in greater trust as compared with hearing, nor loud-sounding hearing above the clear evidence of thy tongue, nor withhold thy trust from any of the other limbs, wheresoever there is a path for understanding, but think on each thing in the way by which it is manifest." (421:Sextus-Fr.3)


"A double tale will I tell: at one time it grew to be one only from many, at another it divided again to be many from one. There is a double coming into being of mortal things and a double passing away. One is brought about, and again destroyed, by the coming together of all things, the other grows up and is scattered as things are agin divided. And these things never cease from continual shifting, at one time all coming together, through Love, into one, at another each borne apart from the others through Strife. (So, insofar as they have learned to grow into one from many) and again, when the one is sundered, are once more many, thus far they come into being and they have no lasting life; but insofar as they never cease from continual interchange of places, thus far are they ever changeless in the cycle." (423:Simplicius-Fr.17)


"Empedocles holds that aither was the first to be separated off, next fire, and after that earth. From the earth, as it was excessively constricted by the force of the rotation, sprang water. From water air came by evaporation. The heavens arose from aither, the sun from the fire, while terrestrial things were compressed from the other elements." (433:Aetius)


"For it is not our blood, [Empedocles] says, nor the blending of our breath that produced the essential principle of soul; rather from these ingredients the body is moulded, which is earth-born and mortal. Since the sould has come hither from elsewhere, he euphemistically calls birth a sojourn abroad—the most comforting of all names; but in truth the soul is a fugitive and a wanderer, banished by the decrees and laws of the gods." (486:Plutarch)


Leukippos of Miletus and Demokritos of Abdera  (mid 5th century, B.C.)


“Leucippus postulated atoms and void, and in this respect Democritos resembled him, though in other respects he was more productive.” (548:Cicero)


“Leucippus of Elea or Miletus (both accounts are current) had associated with Parmenides in philosophy, but in his view of reality [των όντων] he did not tread the same path as Parmenides and Xenophanes, but rather, it seems, the opposite path. For while they regarded the whole as one, motionless, uncreated and limited and forbade even the search for what is not, he posited innumerable elements in perpetual motion—namely the atoms—and held the number of their shapes was infinite, on the ground that there was no reason why any atom should be of one shape rather than another; for he observed too that coming-into-being and change are incessant in the world. Further he held that not-being exists as well as being [έτι δε ούδεν μαλλον το ον η το μη ον υπαρχειν], and the two are equally the causes of things coming-into-being.” (546:Simplicius)


“Leucippus and his associate Democritus hold that the elements are the full and the void; they call them being [] and non-being [] respectively.  Being is full and solid, not-being is void and rare. Since the void exists no less than body, it follows that not-being exists no less than being. The two together are the material causes of existing things.(554: Aristotle)


“Democritus . . . calls space by these names—‘the void’ [κενω], ‘nothing’ [ουδενι], and ‘the infinite’ [απειρον], while each individual atom he calls ‘hing’ [i.e. ‘nothing’ without ‘not’], the ‘compact’ and ‘being’. He thinks that they are so small as to elude our senses, but they have all sorts of forms and shapes and differences in size. So he is already enabled from them, as from elements, to create aggregation bulks that are perceptible to sight and other senses.” (555: Aristotle)(bracketed portion in original)


“They (sc. Leucippus, Democritus, Epicurus) said that the first principles were infinite in number, and thought they were indivisible atoms and impassable owing to their compactness and without any void between them; divisibility comes about because of the void in compound bodies . . . .” (556: Simplicius)


(Almost all of the materials above are taken from the first edition of Kirk and Raven, The Presocratic Philosophers (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1957). In the parentheses following each quote, the first number refers to the numbered quotation in Kirk and Raven. The name that follows is the name of the ancient author who is the source of the quote. Since most of the complete ancient texts are presently lost, many of the original quotes are fragments and appear in other texts by the aforementioned ancient authors. There are several collections of these fragments, and the numbering systems used in the collections are usually accepted by other scholars. Hence, the last element of the parenthetical citation is to the academically-accepted fragment number of the particular quote.)








3.  translations